www.ironjacamar.orgCommunity Documentation

IronJacamar 1.1 Developer's Guide

Connecting your Enterprise Information Systems

To all Java EE Connector Architecture users, and especially the IronJacamar community

Table of Contents

1. About IronJacamar
2. Why IronJacamar ?
3. Versions
3.1. IronJacamar 1.1
3.2. IronJacamar 1.0
4. The team
5. Thanks to
6. License
1. Introduction
1.1. What's New
1.1.1. Java Connector Architecture 1.7
1.1.2. Java Connector Architecture 1.6
1.2. Overview
1.2.1. Outbound resource adapter
1.2.2. Inbound resource adapter
2. Building
2.1. Prerequisites
2.1.1. Java Development Kit (JDK)
2.1.2. Apache Ant
2.1.3. Apache Ivy
2.1.4. Git
2.2. Obtaining the source code
2.2.1. Forking the repository
2.2.2. Git branches
2.3. Compiling the source code
2.4. Creating a patch
3. Releases
3.1. Overview
3.2. Versioning
3.2.1. Major
3.2.2. Minor
3.2.3. Patch
3.3. Identifiers
3.3.1. Alpha releases
3.3.2. Beta releases
3.3.3. Candidate for Release releases
3.3.4. Final releases
3.4. Nexus
3.4.1. Deploying a release
3.4.2. Deploying a snapshot
3.4.3. Deploying a snapshot (locally)
4. Issue tracking
4.1. Location
4.2. Components
4.3. Categories
4.4. Life cycle
4.5. Priorities
5. Testing
5.1. Overall goals
5.1.1. Specification
5.1.2. IronJacamar specific interfaces
5.1.3. IronJacamar specific implementation
5.2. Testing principle and style
5.2.1. Integration Tests
5.2.2. Unit Tests
5.3. Quality Assurance
5.3.1. Checkstyle
5.3.2. Findbugs
5.3.3. JaCoCo
5.3.4. Tattletale
5.4. Performance testing
5.4.1. JProfiler
5.4.2. OProfile
6. Metadata
6.1. Core Metadata
6.1.1. Java Connector Architecture Metadata
6.1.2. IronJacamar Metadata
6.1.3. Resource adapter deployment Metadata
6.1.4. Datasource deployment Metadata
6.2. Metadata Repository
6.2.1. Interface
6.2.2. Bean
7. Deployers
7.1. RAR Deployer
7.1.1. Fungal
7.2. DataSource Deployer
7.2.1. Fungal
8. Connection manager
8.1. Overview
8.2. Public API
8.3. Private API
8.4. Implementation
8.4.1. AbstractConnectionManager
8.4.2. NoTxConnectionManagerImpl
8.4.3. TxConnectionManagerImpl
8.4.4. AbstractConnectionListener
8.4.5. NoTxConnectionListener
8.4.6. TxConnectionListener
9. Pool
9.1. Overview
9.2. Public API
9.3. Private API
9.4. Implementation
9.4.1. AbstractPool
9.4.2. AbstractPrefillPool
9.4.3. Pool types
9.5. ManagedConnectionPool
9.5.1. Private API
9.5.2. Implementation
10. Standalone
10.1. Overview
10.2. IronJacamar/SJC
A. Licenses
A.1. GNU Lesser General Public License 2.1
A.1.1. Preamble
A.1.2. Terms and Conditions for Copying, Distribution and Modification
A.1.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries
A.2. Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported License
A.2.1. Definitions
A.2.2. Fair Dealing Rights
A.2.3. License Grant
A.2.4. Restrictions
A.2.5. Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer
A.2.6. Termination
A.2.7. Miscellaneous
A.3. Apache License, Version 2.0
A.3.1. Definitions
A.3.2. Grant of Copyright License
A.3.3. Grant of Patent License
A.3.4. Redistribution
A.3.5. Submission of Contributions
A.3.6. Trademarks
A.3.7. Disclaimer of Warranty
A.3.8. Limitation of Liability
A.3.9. Accepting Warranty or Additional Liability

List of Tables

4.1. Project components
4.2. JIRA categories
4.3. JIRA Lifecycle
4.4. JIRA Priorities
6.1. Datasource mapping

Copyright © 2013 Red Hat, Inc. and others.

The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA").

An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.

Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.

The Java Connector Architecture (JCA) defines a standard architecture for connecting the Java EE platform to heterogeneous Enterprise Information Systems (EIS). Examples of EISs include Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), mainframe transaction processing (TP), databases and messaging systems.

The connector architecture defines a set of scalable, secure, and transactional mechanisms that enable the integration of EISs with application servers and enterprise applications.

The connector architecture also defines a Common Client Interface (CCI) for EIS access. The CCI defines a client API for interacting with heterogeneous EISs.

The connector architecture enables an EIS vendor to provide a standard resource adapter for its EIS. A resource adapter is a system-level software driver that is used by a Java application to connect to an EIS. The resource adapter plugs into an application server and provides connectivity between the EIS, the application server, and the enterprise application. The resource adapter serves as a protocol adapter that allows any arbitrary EIS communication protocol to be used for connectivity. An application server vendor extends its system once to support the connector architecture and is then assured of seamless connectivity to multiple EISs. Likewise, an EIS vendor provides one standard resource adapter which has the capability to plug in to any application server that supports the connector architecture.

The Java EE Connector Architecture features three different types of resource adapters

For more information about Java EE Connector Architecture see the specification.

The chapter describes the various releases and their exit criteria.

Each release will contain an identifier which relates to the release quality.

The overall goals of our test environment is to execute tests that ensures that we have full coverage of the JCA specification as well as our implementation.

The full test suite is executed using

ant test

A single test case can be executed using

ant -Dmodule=embedded -Dtest=org.jboss.jca.embedded.unit.ShrinkWrapTestCase one-test

where -Dmodule specifies which module to execute the test case in. This parameter defaults to core. The -Dtest parameter specifies the test case itself.

You can also execute all test cases of a single module using

ant -Dmodule=embedded module-test

where -Dmodule specifies which module to execute the test cases in. This parameter defaults to core.

The build script does not fail in case of test errors or failure.

You can control the behavior by using the junit.haltonerror and junit.haltonfailure properties in the main build.xml file. Default value for both is no.

You can of course change them statically in the build.xml file or temporary using -Djunit.haltonerror=yes. There are other jnuit.* properties defined in the main build.xml that can be controlled in the same way.

Our tests follows the Behavior Driven Development (BDD) technique. In BDD you focus on specifying the behaviors of a class and write code (tests) that verify that behavior.

You may be thinking that BDD sounds awfully similar to Test Driven Development (TDD). In some ways they are similar: they both encourage writing the tests first and to provide full coverage of the code. However, TDD doesn't really provide a guide on which kind of tests you should be writing.

BDD provides you with guidance on how to do testing by focusing on what the behavior of a class is supposed to be. We introduce BDD to our testing environment by extending the standard JUnit 4.x test framework with BDD capabilities using assertion and mocking frameworks.

The BDD tests should

We are using two different kind of tests:

  • Integration Tests: The goal of these test cases is to validate the whole process of deployment, and interacting with a sub-system by simulating a critical condition.

  • Unit Tests: The goal of these test cases is to stress test some internal behaviour by mocking classes to perfectly reproduce conditions to test.

The integration tests simulate a real condition using a particular deployment artifacts packaged as resource adapters.

The resource adapters are created using either the main build environment or by using ShrinkWrap. Using resource adapters within the test cases will allow you to debug both the resource adapters themself or the JCA container.

The resource adapters represent the [given] facts of our BDD tests, the deployment of the resource adapters represent the [when] phase, while the [then] phase is verified by assertion.

Note that some tests consider an exception a normal output condition using the JUnit 4.x @Exception(expected = "SomeClass.class") annotation to identify and verify this situation.

We are mocking our input/output conditions in our unit tests using the Mockito framework to verify class and method behaviors.

An example:

public void printFailuresLogShouldReturnNotEmptyStringForWarning() throws Throwable
   RADeployer deployer = new RADeployer();
   File mockedDirectory = mock(File.class);
   Failure failure = mock(Failure.class);
   List failures = Arrays.asList(failure);
   FailureHelper fh = mock(FailureHelper.class);
   given(fh.asText((ResourceBundle) anyObject())).willReturn("myText");
   String returnValue = deployer.printFailuresLog(null, mock(Validator.class), 
                                                  failures, mockedDirectory, fh);
   assertThat(returnValue, is("myText"));

As you can see the BDD style respects the test method name and using the given-when-then sequence in order.

In addition to the test suite the IronJacamar project deploys various tools to increase the stability of the project.

The following sections will describe each of these tools.

Performance testing can identify areas that needs to be improved or completely replaced.

The metadata for the IronJacamar project is split up into the following areas

All metadata parsing is done using the StAX model (javax.xml.stream) for optimal performance.

The implementation of these areas is done within the common module of the project.

The datasource deployment metadata provides a deployment plan for datasources. The metadata allows the developer to setup connection parameters, pooling settings and security.

Supported versions of the metadata:

The implementation is split into two package hierarchies - the API in


and the implementation in



The deployer chains for the project is located in the deployers module.

The responsibility of the RAR deployer is to deploy a resource adapter archive (.RAR) file.

The Fungal kernel features a simple deployment framework, so only three classes are needed for the deployer chain.

The classes are located in the



The implementation of the connection manager is split in two classes, with a shared base class for common functionality.

TxConnectionListener is the listener for LocalTransaction and XATransaction scenarios.

used() updates the last used time, and resets the timeout value for the underlying XAResource if in XATransaction mode.

enlist() enlists the XAResource instances in the transaction through TransactionSynchronization including resources picked up by the CachedConnectionManager.

delist() delists the XAResource from the transaction in interleaved scenarios.

dissociate() dissociates the ConnectionListener with the transaction.

connectionClosed(ConnectionEvent) dissociates a connection handle through wasFreed(Object) and returns the ManagedConnection in interleaved scenarios.

connectionErrorOccurred(ConnectionEvent) clears any TransactionSynchronization object such that the ManagedConnection can be returned for destruction.

tidyup() will rollback any left over LocalTransaction instance.

isManagedConnectionFree() checks if there is exists a TransactionSynchronization object in track by transaction scenarios, since the ManagedConnection can't be returned in that case.

wasFreed(Object) dissociates a connection handle from the ConnectionListener, or resets the track by transaction flag if null such that the ManagedConnection can be returned.

The TransactionSynchronization class takes care of enlisting the XAResource in the transaction, in track by transaction scenarios. This is done in its enlist() and its result can be verified in checkEnlisted(). The beforeCompletion() method delists the XAResource from the transaction. The afterCompletion(int) method returns the ManagedConnection to the pool.

The pool implementation provides a concrete implementation of the contracts defined by the public and private APIs.

The package for the pool implementation is org.jboss.jca.core.connectionmanager.pool.

AbstractPool provides the methods that are shared across all pool implementations.

getKey(Subject, ConnectionRequestInfo, boolean) defines the key used to lookup the ManagedConnectionPool instance. The implementation of this method is different for each pool type.

getManagedConnectionPool(Object, Subject, ConnectionRequestInfo) retrieves the correct ManagedConnectionPool instance. If the ManagedConnectionPool doesn't yet exists then one is created, and initialized.

emptyManagedConnectionPool(ManagedConnectionPool) removes a ManagedConnectionPool instance, if unused.

flush flushes the ManagedConnectionPool instances, based on the FlushMode.

getConnection(Transaction, Subject, ConnectionRequestInfo) returns a ConnectionListener instance, which has the physical connection to the Enterprise Information System attached. The method uses 3 sub methods to return the correct listener instance. getSimpleConnection returns a ConnectionListener if there is no transaction associated. getTransactionOldConnection returns the ConnectionListener already associated with the transaction, if any. getTransactionNewConnection creates a new ConnectionListener, and associates it with the transaction.

findConnectionListener finds a specific ConnectionListener instance.

returnConnectionListener returns a ConnectionListener instance to the correct ManagedConnectionPool.

shutdown shuts down the pool.

internalTestConnection(ConnectionRequestInfo, Subject) tries to obtain a ConnectionListener based on the input given.

The ManagedConnectionPool controls the ConnectionListener instances, which each has a physical connection (ManagedConnection) associated.

The package is org.jboss.jca.core.connectionmanager.pool.mcp

There are three different implementations of the ManagedConnectionPool interface. SemaphoreArrayListManagedConnectionPool which uses a Semaphore to guard an ArrayList which holds the ConnectionListeners. ArrayBlockingQueueManagedConnectionPool which uses an ArrayBlockingQueue to hold the ConnectionListeners. And LeakDumperManagedConnectionPool which extends SemaphoreArrayListManagedConnectionPool, but reports any leaks upon shutdown.

getConnection(Subject, ConnectionRequestInfo) provides a ConnectionListener. The method requires a lock in order to obtain a listener, using the specified timeout value. If a listener is avaiable in the pool then it is matched against the ManagedConnectionFactory to verify it is valid, and returned - otherwise it is destroyed. If no listener is available then a new listener is created and returned. In the latter case both prefill and a capacity increase is scheduled in order to prefill to the minimum size, and increase the pool by the specified capacity policy.

returnConnection(ConnectionListener, boolean, boolean) returns a ConnectionListener into the pool.

flush(FlushMode) flushes the ConnectionListeners according to the mode. Any listeners marked as bad will be destroyed. Prefill is scheduled at the end in order to maintain the minimum pool size.

removeIdleConnections is invoked from the idle remover in order to decrement the pool to the desired size based on the CapacityDecrementer policy. If any listeners are destroyed the pool is either scheduled for prefill, or for removal through emptyManagedConnectionPool if empty.

shutdown shuts the instance down. All listeners are removed.

fillTo(int) fills the pool to the specified size. The pool filler component uses this method.

increaseCapacity(Subject, ConnectionRequestInfo) increases the pool based on the CapacityIncrementer policy. The capacity filler component uses this method.

validateConnections validates that the listeners are valid according to ValidatingManagedConnectionFactory. Any invalid listeners are destroyed and prefill scheduled. The connection validator component uses this method.

detachConnectionListener disassociates the connections attached to the ManagedConnection such that it can be reused in another request through DissociatableManagedConnection.

All licenses can be found in the doc/licenses directory.


Version 2.1, February 1999

Copyright (C) 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

[This is the first released version of the Lesser GPL. It also counts as the successor of the GNU Library Public License, version 2, hence the version number 2.1.]

The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.

This license, the Lesser General Public License, applies to some specially designated software packages--typically libraries--of the Free Software Foundation and other authors who decide to use it. You can use it too, but we suggest you first think carefully about whether this license or the ordinary General Public License is the better strategy to use in any particular case, based on the explanations below.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom of use, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish); that you receive source code or can get it if you want it; that you can change the software and use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you are informed that you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid distributors to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender these rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the library or if you modify it.

For example, if you distribute copies of the library, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that we gave you. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. If you link other code with the library, you must provide complete object files to the recipients, so that they can relink them with the library after making changes to the library and recompiling it. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

We protect your rights with a two-step method:

To protect each distributor, we want to make it very clear that there is no warranty for the free library. Also, if the library is modified by someone else and passed on, the recipients should know that what they have is not the original version, so that the original author's reputation will not be affected by problems that might be introduced by others.

Finally, software patents pose a constant threat to the existence of any free program. We wish to make sure that a company cannot effectively restrict the users of a free program by obtaining a restrictive license from a patent holder. Therefore, we insist that any patent license obtained for a version of the library must be consistent with the full freedom of use specified in this license.

Most GNU software, including some libraries, is covered by the ordinary GNU General Public License. This license, the GNU Lesser General Public License, applies to certain designated libraries, and is quite different from the ordinary General Public License. We use this license for certain libraries in order to permit linking those libraries into non-free programs.

When a program is linked with a library, whether statically or using a shared library, the combination of the two is legally speaking a combined work, a derivative of the original library. The ordinary General Public License therefore permits such linking only if the entire combination fits its criteria of freedom. The Lesser General Public License permits more lax criteria for linking other code with the library.

We call this license the Lesser General Public License because it does Less to protect the user's freedom than the ordinary General Public License. It also provides other free software developers Less of an advantage over competing non-free programs. These disadvantages are the reason we use the ordinary General Public License for many libraries. However, the Lesser license provides advantages in certain special circumstances.

For example, on rare occasions, there may be a special need to encourage the widest possible use of a certain library, so that it becomes a de-facto standard. To achieve this, non-free programs must be allowed to use the library. A more frequent case is that a free library does the same job as widely used non-free libraries. In this case, there is little to gain by limiting the free library to free software only, so we use the Lesser General Public License.

In other cases, permission to use a particular library in non-free programs enables a greater number of people to use a large body of free software. For example, permission to use the GNU C Library in non-free programs enables many more people to use the whole GNU operating system, as well as its variant, the GNU/Linux operating system.

Although the Lesser General Public License is Less protective of the users' freedom, it does ensure that the user of a program that is linked with the Library has the freedom and the wherewithal to run that program using a modified version of the Library.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow. Pay close attention to the difference between a work based on the library and a work that uses the library. The former contains code derived from the library, whereas the latter must be combined with the library in order to run.

This License Agreement applies to any software library or other program which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder or other authorized party saying it may be distributed under the terms of this Lesser General Public License (also called this License). Each licensee is addressed as you.

A library means a collection of software functions and/or data prepared so as to be conveniently linked with application programs (which use some of those functions and data) to form executables.

The Library, below, refers to any such software library or work which has been distributed under these terms. A work based on the Library means either the Library or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Library or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated straightforwardly into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term modification.)

Source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For a library, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the library.

Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running a program using the Library is not restricted, and output from such a program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Library (independent of the use of the Library in a tool for writing it). Whether that is true depends on what the Library does and what the program that uses the Library does.

You may modify your copy or copies of the Library or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Library, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

  1. The modified work must itself be a software library.

  2. You must cause the files modified to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

  3. You must cause the whole of the work to be licensed at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.

  4. If a facility in the modified Library refers to a function or a table of data to be supplied by an application program that uses the facility, other than as an argument passed when the facility is invoked, then you must make a good faith effort to ensure that, in the event an application does not supply such function or table, the facility still operates, and performs whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful.

    (For example, a function in a library to compute square roots has a purpose that is entirely well-defined independent of the application. Therefore, Subsection 2d requires that any application-supplied function or table used by this function must be optional: if the application does not supply it, the square root function must still compute square roots.)

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Library, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Library, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Library.

In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Library with the Library (or with a work based on the Library) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.

You may copy and distribute the Library (or a portion or derivative of it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange.

If distribution of object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place satisfies the requirement to distribute the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the Library, but is designed to work with the Library by being compiled or linked with it, is called a work that uses the Library. Such a work, in isolation, is not a derivative work of the Library, and therefore falls outside the scope of this License.

However, linking a work that uses the Library with the Library creates an executable that is a derivative of the Library (because it contains portions of the Library), rather than a work that uses the library. The executable is therefore covered by this License. Section 6 states terms for distribution of such executables.

When a work that uses the Library uses material from a header file that is part of the Library, the object code for the work may be a derivative work of the Library even though the source code is not. Whether this is true is especially significant if the work can be linked without the Library, or if the work is itself a library. The threshold for this to be true is not precisely defined by law.

If such an object file uses only numerical parameters, data structure layouts and accessors, and small macros and small inline functions (ten lines or less in length), then the use of the object file is unrestricted, regardless of whether it is legally a derivative work. (Executables containing this object code plus portions of the Library will still fall under Section 6.)

Otherwise, if the work is a derivative of the Library, you may distribute the object code for the work under the terms of Section 6. Any executables containing that work also fall under Section 6, whether or not they are linked directly with the Library itself.

As an exception to the Sections above, you may also combine or link a work that uses the Library with the Library to produce a work containing portions of the Library, and distribute that work under terms of your choice, provided that the terms permit modification of the work for the customer's own use and reverse engineering for debugging such modifications.

You must give prominent notice with each copy of the work that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License. You must supply a copy of this License. If the work during execution displays copyright notices, you must include the copyright notice for the Library among them, as well as a reference directing the user to the copy of this License. Also, you must do one of these things:

  1. Accompany the work with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code for the Library including whatever changes were used in the work (which must be distributed under Sections 1 and 2 above); and, if the work is an executable linked with the Library, with the complete machine-readable work that uses the Library, as object code and/or source code, so that the user can modify the Library and then relink to produce a modified executable containing the modified Library. (It is understood that the user who changes the contents of definitions files in the Library will not necessarily be able to recompile the application to use the modified definitions.)

  2. Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the Library. A suitable mechanism is one that (1) uses at run time a copy of the library already present on the user's computer system, rather than copying library functions into the executable, and (2) will operate properly with a modified version of the library, if the user installs one, as long as the modified version is interface-compatible with the version that the work was made with.

  3. Accompany the work with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give the same user the materials specified in Subsection 6a, above, for a charge no more than the cost of performing this distribution.

  4. If distribution of the work is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, offer equivalent access to copy the above specified materials from the same place.

  5. Verify that the user has already received a copy of these materials or that you have already sent this user a copy.

For an executable, the required form of the work that uses the Library must include any data and utility programs needed for reproducing the executable from it. However, as a special exception, the materials to be distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.

It may happen that this requirement contradicts the license restrictions of other proprietary libraries that do not normally accompany the operating system. Such a contradiction means you cannot use both them and the Library together in an executable that you distribute.

If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Library at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Library by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Library.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply, and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.

This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.

If you develop a new library, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, we recommend making it free software that everyone can redistribute and change. You can do so by permitting redistribution under these terms (or, alternatively, under the terms of the ordinary General Public License).

To apply these terms, attach the following notices to the library. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the copyright line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

<one line to give the library's name and a brief idea of what it does.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a copyright disclaimer for the library, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:

Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the library `Frob' (a library for tweaking knobs) written by James Random Hacker.

<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1990 Ty Coon, President of Vice

That's all there is to it!



  1. "Adaptation" means a work based upon the Work, or upon the Work and other pre-existing works, such as a translation, adaptation, derivative work, arrangement of music or other alterations of a literary or artistic work, or phonogram or performance and includes cinematographic adaptations or any other form in which the Work may be recast, transformed, or adapted including in any form recognizably derived from the original, except that a work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License. For the avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a musical work, performance or phonogram, the synchronization of the Work in timed-relation with a moving image ("synching") will be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License.

  2. "Collection" means a collection of literary or artistic works, such as encyclopedias and anthologies, or performances, phonograms or broadcasts, or other works or subject matter other than works listed in Section 1(f) below, which, by reason of the selection and arrangement of their contents, constitute intellectual creations, in which the Work is included in its entirety in unmodified form along with one or more other contributions, each constituting separate and independent works in themselves, which together are assembled into a collective whole. A work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation (as defined below) for the purposes of this License.

  3. "Creative Commons Compatible License" means a license that is listed at http://creativecommons.org/compatiblelicenses that has been approved by Creative Commons as being essentially equivalent to this License, including, at a minimum, because that license: (i) contains terms that have the same purpose, meaning and effect as the License Elements of this License; and, (ii) explicitly permits the relicensing of adaptations of works made available under that license under this License or a Creative Commons jurisdiction license with the same License Elements as this License.

  4. "Distribute" means to make available to the public the original and copies of the Work or Adaptation, as appropriate, through sale or other transfer of ownership.

  5. "License Elements" means the following high-level license attributes as selected by Licensor and indicated in the title of this License: Attribution, ShareAlike.

  6. "Licensor" means the individual, individuals, entity or entities that offer(s) the Work under the terms of this License.

  7. "Original Author" means, in the case of a literary or artistic work, the individual, individuals, entity or entities who created the Work or if no individual or entity can be identified, the publisher; and in addition (i) in the case of a performance the actors, singers, musicians, dancers, and other persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret or otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore; (ii) in the case of a phonogram the producer being the person or legal entity who first fixes the sounds of a performance or other sounds; and, (iii) in the case of broadcasts, the organization that transmits the broadcast.

  8. "Work" means the literary and/or artistic work offered under the terms of this License including without limitation any production in the literary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form of its expression including digital form, such as a book, pamphlet and other writing; a lecture, address, sermon or other work of the same nature; a dramatic or dramatico-musical work; a choreographic work or entertainment in dumb show; a musical composition with or without words; a cinematographic work to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to cinematography; a work of drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving or lithography; a photographic work to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to photography; a work of applied art; an illustration, map, plan, sketch or three-dimensional work relative to geography, topography, architecture or science; a performance; a broadcast; a phonogram; a compilation of data to the extent it is protected as a copyrightable work; or a work performed by a variety or circus performer to the extent it is not otherwise considered a literary or artistic work.

  9. "You" means an individual or entity exercising rights under this License who has not previously violated the terms of this License with respect to the Work, or who has received express permission from the Licensor to exercise rights under this License despite a previous violation.

  10. "Publicly Perform" means to perform public recitations of the Work and to communicate to the public those public recitations, by any means or process, including by wire or wireless means or public digital performances; to make available to the public Works in such a way that members of the public may access these Works from a place and at a place individually chosen by them; to perform the Work to the public by any means or process and the communication to the public of the performances of the Work, including by public digital performance; to broadcast and rebroadcast the Work by any means including signs, sounds or images.

  11. "Reproduce" means to make copies of the Work by any means including without limitation by sound or visual recordings and the right of fixation and reproducing fixations of the Work, including storage of a protected performance or phonogram in digital form or other electronic medium.

Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the Work as stated below:

  1. to Reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Collections, and to Reproduce the Work as incorporated in the Collections;

  2. to create and Reproduce Adaptations provided that any such Adaptation, including any translation in any medium, takes reasonable steps to clearly label, demarcate or otherwise identify that changes were made to the original Work. For example, a translation could be marked "The original work was translated from English to Spanish," or a modification could indicate "The original work has been modified.";

  3. to Distribute and Publicly Perform the Work including as incorporated in Collections; and,

  4. to Distribute and Publicly Perform Adaptations.

  5. For the avoidance of doubt:

The above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether now known or hereafter devised. The above rights include the right to make such modifications as are technically necessary to exercise the rights in other media and formats. Subject to Section 8(f), all rights not expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved.

The license granted in Section 3 above is expressly made subject to and limited by the following restrictions:

  1. You may Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work only under the terms of this License. You must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for, this License with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. You may not offer or impose any terms on the Work that restrict the terms of this License or the ability of the recipient of the Work to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. You may not sublicense the Work. You must keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. When You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work, You may not impose any effective technological measures on the Work that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Work from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. This Section 4(a) applies to the Work as incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection apart from the Work itself to be made subject to the terms of this License. If You create a Collection, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Collection any credit as required by Section 4(c), as requested. If You create an Adaptation, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Adaptation any credit as required by Section 4(c), as requested.

  2. You may Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation only under the terms of: (i) this License; (ii) a later version of this License with the same License Elements as this License; (iii) a Creative Commons jurisdiction license (either this or a later license version) that contains the same License Elements as this License (e.g., Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 US)); (iv) a Creative Commons Compatible License. If you license the Adaptation under one of the licenses mentioned in (iv), you must comply with the terms of that license. If you license the Adaptation under the terms of any of the licenses mentioned in (i), (ii) or (iii) (the "Applicable License"), you must comply with the terms of the Applicable License generally and the following provisions: (I) You must include a copy of, or the URI for, the Applicable License with every copy of each Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform; (II) You may not offer or impose any terms on the Adaptation that restrict the terms of the Applicable License or the ability of the recipient of the Adaptation to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the Applicable License; (III) You must keep intact all notices that refer to the Applicable License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work as included in the Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform; (IV) when You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Adaptation, You may not impose any effective technological measures on the Adaptation that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Adaptation from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the Applicable License. This Section 4(b) applies to the Adaptation as incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection apart from the Adaptation itself to be made subject to the terms of the Applicable License.

  3. If You Distribute, or Publicly Perform the Work or any Adaptations or Collections, You must, unless a request has been made pursuant to Section 4(a), keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and provide, reasonable to the medium or means You are utilizing: (i) the name of the Original Author (or pseudonym, if applicable) if supplied, and/or if the Original Author and/or Licensor designate another party or parties (e.g., a sponsor institute, publishing entity, journal) for attribution ("Attribution Parties") in Licensor's copyright notice, terms of service or by other reasonable means, the name of such party or parties; (ii) the title of the Work if supplied; (iii) to the extent reasonably practicable, the URI, if any, that Licensor specifies to be associated with the Work, unless such URI does not refer to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work; and (iv) , consistent with Section 3(b), in the case of an Adaptation, a credit identifying the use of the Work in the Adaptation (e.g., "French translation of the Work by Original Author," or "Screenplay based on original Work by Original Author"). The credit required by this Section 4(c) may be implemented in any reasonable manner; provided, however, that in the case of a Adaptation or Collection, at a minimum such credit will appear, if a credit for all contributing authors of the Adaptation or Collection appears, then as part of these credits and in a manner at least as prominent as the credits for the other contributing authors. For the avoidance of doubt, You may only use the credit required by this Section for the purpose of attribution in the manner set out above and, by exercising Your rights under this License, You may not implicitly or explicitly assert or imply any connection with, sponsorship or endorsement by the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties, as appropriate, of You or Your use of the Work, without the separate, express prior written permission of the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties.

  4. Except as otherwise agreed in writing by the Licensor or as may be otherwise permitted by applicable law, if You Reproduce, Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work either by itself or as part of any Adaptations or Collections, You must not distort, mutilate, modify or take other derogatory action in relation to the Work which would be prejudicial to the Original Author's honor or reputation. Licensor agrees that in those jurisdictions (e.g. Japan), in which any exercise of the right granted in Section 3(b) of this License (the right to make Adaptations) would be deemed to be a distortion, mutilation, modification or other derogatory action prejudicial to the Original Author's honor and reputation, the Licensor will waive or not assert, as appropriate, this Section, to the fullest extent permitted by the applicable national law, to enable You to reasonably exercise Your right under Section 3(b) of this License (right to make Adaptations) but not otherwise.

  1. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work or a Collection, the Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.

  2. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation, Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the original Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.

  3. If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this License, and without further action by the parties to this agreement, such provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and enforceable.

  4. No term or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no breach consented to unless such waiver or consent shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged with such waiver or consent.

  5. This License constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the Work licensed here. There are no understandings, agreements or representations with respect to the Work not specified here. Licensor shall not be bound by any additional provisions that may appear in any communication from You. This License may not be modified without the mutual written agreement of the Licensor and You.

  6. The rights granted under, and the subject matter referenced, in this License were drafted utilizing the terminology of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (as amended on September 28, 1979), the Rome Convention of 1961, the WIPO Copyright Treaty of 1996, the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of 1996 and the Universal Copyright Convention (as revised on July 24, 1971). These rights and subject matter take effect in the relevant jurisdiction in which the License terms are sought to be enforced according to the corresponding provisions of the implementation of those treaty provisions in the applicable national law. If the standard suite of rights granted under applicable copyright law includes additional rights not granted under this License, such additional rights are deemed to be included in the License; this License is not intended to restrict the license of any rights under applicable law.

Apache license

Version 2.0, January 2004



"License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction, and distribution as defined by Sections 1 through 9 of this document.

"Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by the copyright owner that is granting the License.

"Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity and all other entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common control with that entity. For the purposes of this definition, "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or more of the outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial ownership of such entity.

"You" (or "Your") shall mean an individual or Legal Entity exercising permissions granted by this License.

"Source" form shall mean the preferred form for making modifications, including but not limited to software source code, documentation source, and configuration files.

"Object" form shall mean any form resulting from mechanical transformation or translation of a Source form, including but not limited to compiled object code, generated documentation, and conversions to other media types.

"Work" shall mean the work of authorship, whether in Source or Object form, made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below).

"Derivative Works" shall mean any work, whether in Source or Object form, that is based on (or derived from) the Work and for which the editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications represent, as a whole, an original work of authorship. For the purposes of this License, Derivative Works shall not include works that remain separable from, or merely link (or bind by name) to the interfaces of, the Work and Derivative Works thereof.

"Contribution" shall mean any work of authorship, including the original version of the Work and any modifications or additions to that Work or Derivative Works thereof, that is intentionally submitted to Licensor for inclusion in the Work by the copyright owner or by an individual or Legal Entity authorized to submit on behalf of the copyright owner. For the purposes of this definition, "submitted" means any form of electronic, verbal, or written communication sent to the Licensor or its representatives, including but not limited to communication on electronic mailing lists, source code control systems, and issue tracking systems that are managed by, or on behalf of, the Licensor for the purpose of discussing and improving the Work, but excluding communication that is conspicuously marked or otherwise designated in writing by the copyright owner as "Not a Contribution."

"Contributor" shall mean Licensor and any individual or Legal Entity on behalf of whom a Contribution has been received by Licensor and subsequently incorporated within the Work.

You may reproduce and distribute copies of the Work or Derivative Works thereof in any medium, with or without modifications, and in Source or Object form, provided that You meet the following conditions:

You may add Your own copyright statement to Your modifications and may provide additional or different license terms and conditions for use, reproduction, or distribution of Your modifications, or for any such Derivative Works as a whole, provided Your use, reproduction, and distribution of the Work otherwise complies with the conditions stated in this License.